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The fate of secondary biomaterial implants was determined by bio-optical imaging and plate counting, after antibiotic treatment of biomaterials-associated-infection (BAI) and surgical removal of an experimentally infected, primary implant. All primary implants and tissue samples from control mice showed bioluminescence and were culture-positive. In an antibiotic treated group, no bioluminescence was detected and only 20% of all primary implants and no tissue samples were culture-positive. After revision surgery, bioluminescence was detected in all control mice. All the implants and 80% of all tissue samples were culture-positive. In contrast, in the antibiotic treated group, 17% of all secondary implants and 33% of all tissue samples were culture-positive, despite antibiotic treatment. The study illustrates that due to the BAI of a primary implant, the infection risk of biomaterial implants is higher in revision surgery than in primary surgery, emphasizing the need for full clearance of the infection, as well as from surrounding tissues prior to implantation of a secondary implant.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





761 - 767


Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Biocompatible Materials, Biofilms, Cross Infection, Equipment Contamination, Implants, Experimental, Mice, Prosthesis-Related Infections, Reoperation, Rifampin, Staphylococcal Infections, Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin