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BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify safety measures practiced by Dutch surgeons during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHOD: An electronic questionnaire was sent to all members of the Dutch Society of Surgery with a registered e-mail address. RESULTS: The response rate was 40.4% and 453 responses were analyzed. The distribution of the respondents with regard to type of hospital was similar to that in the general population of Dutch surgeons. The critical view of safety (CVS) technique is used by 97.6% of the surgeons. It is documented by 92.6%, mostly in the operation report (80.0%), but often augmented by photography (42.7%) or video (30.2%). If the CVS is not obtained, 50.9% of surgeons convert to the open approach, 39.1% continue laparoscopically, and 10.0% perform additional imaging studies. Of Dutch surgeons, 53.2% never perform intraoperative cholangiography (IOC), 41.3% perform it incidentally, and only 2.6% perform it routinely. A total of 105 bile duct injuries (BDIs) were reported in 14,387 cholecystectomies (0.73%). The self-reported major BDI rate (involving the common bile duct) was 0.13%, but these figures need to be confirmed in other studies. CONCLUSION: The CVS approach in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is embraced by virtually all Dutch surgeons. The course of action when CVS is not obtained varies. IOC seems to be an endangered skill as over half the Dutch surgeons never perform it and the rest perform it only incidentally.

Original publication




Journal article


World J Surg

Publication Date





1235 - 1241


Cholangiography, Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic, Clinical Competence, Common Bile Duct, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Humans, Intraoperative Complications, Male, Monitoring, Intraoperative, Netherlands, Practice Patterns, Physicians', Risk Assessment, Safety Management, Surveys and Questionnaires, Treatment Outcome