Accelerated methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (AMVAC) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
Blick C., Hall P., Pwint T., Al-Terkait F., Crew J., Powles T., Macaulay V., Munro N., Douglas D., Kilbey N., Protheroe A., Chester JD.
BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis data demonstrate a 5% absolute survival benefit for neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using cisplatin-based combination regimens in the radical treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). However, there are no randomized, controlled trial data on the optimum regimen. Accelerated methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (AMVAC) is a dose-intense regimen that has the potential to minimize delays to definitive, potentially curative therapy. A retrospective analysis is presented of the efficacy and toxicity of AMVAC as NAC in patients with MIBC and its impact on the patient pathway. METHODS: Eighty consecutive patients with MIBC were treated with AMVAC as NAC by 2 UK multidisciplinary uro-oncology teams. Three or 4 cycles of AMVAC (methotrexate 30 mg/m(2) , vinblastine 3 mg/m(2) , doxorubicin 30 mg/m(2) , and cisplatin 70 mg/m(2) ) were given at 2-week intervals, with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support, prior to either radical surgery or radical radiotherapy. RESULTS: All planned cycles of chemotherapy were completed, without dose reduction or delay in 84% of patients. All 80 patients subsequently received their planned definitive therapy. Grade 3/4 toxicities were seen in 26% of the 42% of patients for whom toxicity data are available, including 12% grade 3/4 neutropenia. Pathological complete response to AMVAC was seen in 43% of 60 surgical patients. Objective radiological local response was seen in 83% of 57 evaluable patients. Two-year disease-free and overall survival were 65% and 77%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: AMVAC is safe and appears to be a well-tolerated and effective NAC regimen for MIBC. It minimizes delays to definitive treatment and produces excellent pathological and radiological response rates. It is an appropriate comparator for future randomized trials.