Perfluorocarbon emulsions prevent hypoxia of pancreatic β-cells.
Maillard E., Juszczak MT., Langlois A., Kleiss C., Sencier MC., Bietiger W., Sanchez-Dominguez M., Krafft MP., Johnson PRV., Pinget M., Sigrist S.
As oxygen carriers, perfluorocarbon emulsions might be useful to decrease hypoxia of pancreatic islets before transplantation. However, their hydrophobicity prevents their homogenisation in culture medium. To increase the surface of contact between islets and Perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB), and consequently oxygen delivery, we tested effect of a PFOB emulsion in culture medium on β-cell lines and rat pancreatic islets. RINm5F β-cell line or pancreatic rat islets were incubated for 3 days in the presence of PFOB emulsion in media (3.5% w/v). Preoxygenation of the medium was performed before culture. Cell viability was assessed by apoptotic markers (Bax and Bcl-2) and by staining (fluoresceine diacetate and propidium iodide). β-Cell functionality was determined by insulin release during a glucose stimulation test and. Hypoxia markers, HIF-1α and VEGF, were studied at days 1 and 3 using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA. PFOB emulsions preserved viability and functionality of RINm5F cells with a decrease of HIF-1α and VEGF expression. Islets viability was preserved during 3 days of culture. Secretion of VEGF was higher in untreated control (0.09 ± 0.041 μg VEGF/mg total protein) than in PFOB emulsion incubated islets (0.02 ± 0.19 μg VEGF/mg total protein, n = 4, p < 0.05) at day 1. At day 3, VEGF secretion was increased as compared to day 1 in control (0.23 ± 0.04 μg VEGF/mg total protein) but it was imbalance by the presence of PFOB emulsion (0.09 ± 0.03 μg VEGF/mg total protein, n = 5, p < 0.05). While insulin secretion was maintained in response to a glucose stimulation test until day 3 when islets were incubated in the presence of PFOB emulsion preoxygenated (0.81 ± 0.16 at day 1 vs. 0.75 ± 0.24 at day 3), the ability to secrete insulin in the presence of high glucose concentration was lost in islets controls (0.51 ± 0.18 at day 1 vs. 0.21 ± 0.13 at day 3). Atmospheric oxygen delivery by PFOB emulsion might be sufficient to decrease islets hypoxia. However, to improve islets functionality, overoxygenation is needed. Finally, maintenance of islet viability and functionality for several days after isolation could improve the outcome of islets transplantation.