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Beta-cell replacement either by pancreatic organ or islet cell transplantation is the only treatment to achieve an insulin-independent, normoglycemic state and to avoid hypoglycemic episodes in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. This article will review the state-of-the-art in clinical islet cell transplantation at the dawn of the new millennium and will provide an outlook on the basis of extended personal experience.

Original publication




Journal article


Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes

Publication Date



109 Suppl 2


S384 - S399


Graft Rejection, Humans, International Cooperation, Islets of Langerhans Transplantation, Registries