Bryant RJ., Catto JWF.
Haematuria is a common presenting symptom and can be classified as either dipstick, microscopic or macroscopic. It is one of the commonest reasons for referring patients for urological evaluation and should always be taken seriously. Just under half of all patients with haematuria are found to have significant underlying pathology, many of whom have a urological malignancy. Therefore, all adults with haematuria should be assumed to have a urological malignancy until proven otherwise. The commonest cause of haematuria in adults over the age of 50 years is bladder cancer, followed by renal cell cancer, urinary tract infection and renal stone disease. Evaluation of patients with haematuria includes a focused history and physical examination, urinalysis and various blood tests. Most importantly the lower urinary tract should be visualized using cystoscopy, usually using a flexible scope, and the upper tract imaged by a combination of modalities including plain X-ray, ultrasonography, intravenous urography or CT urography. The treatment options for haematuria depend on the underlying cause. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.