Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Due to its significant applicability for early detection, risk prediction and follow-up evaluation, prostate specific antigen (PSA) has revolutionized our ability to treat prostate cancer patients. With the prevalent use of PSA for early detection during the last two decades, disease characteristics have been altered towards early detected, localized tumors with a high chance of cure following local therapy. This advantage faces the risk of overdetection and overtreatment. In addition, PSA lacks both, sensitivity and specificity to accurately detect patients at risk of prostate cancer. Therefore, novel biomarkers are urgently needed to improve identification of men at risk of having the disease and to predict the natural behaviour of the tumor. Recent advances in the evaluation of high-throughput technologies have led to the discovery of novel candidate markers for prostate cancer. This article will briefly discuss current PSA-based strategies and review several novel biomarkers for prostate cancer, detectable in blood.

Original publication




Journal article


World J Urol

Publication Date





111 - 119


Biomarkers, Tumor, Humans, Interleukin-6, Male, Prostate-Specific Antigen, Prostatic Neoplasms, Transforming Growth Factor beta1