Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Tissue and cell examinations have a potential to produce extremely valuable information about antigen quantities in samples. Using currently available methods, a truly quantitative analysis is nearly impossible. We have previously shown that immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of prostate-specific antigen and human glandular kallikrein from prostatic tissue, together with time-resolved fluorescence imaging (TRFI), is a suitable method for obtaining quantitative data from biological samples and that the signal response is linear. In this paper we show that Eu-chelate containing particles in the nanometer range are suitable labels for quantitative IHC. Even single nanoparticle molecules can be detected by TRFI and the signals measured can be readily quantitated. The signal intensity correlates very well with the amount of bound label, and the use of nanoparticles could markedly improve the sensitivity of quantitative IHC methods. TRFI provides a powerful tool for providing quantitative data about antigens or transcripts in tissue sections or cultured cells. It is also of major importance in standardization and optimization of protocols for fixation and tissue preparation, including antigen retrieval methods.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





389 - 397


Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Chelating Agents, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Kallikreins, Male, Metals, Rare Earth, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Microspheres, Prostate, Prostate-Specific Antigen, Prostatic Neoplasms, Staining and Labeling, Tumor Cells, Cultured