Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

The calcium-binding protein S100A4 induces the metastatic phenotype in rodent models of breast cancer and its expression correlates strongly with reduced survival in human breast cancer. The expression of S100A4 in normal bladders and 101 bladder tumours has been studied using immunocytochemistry. Moderate or strong expression of S100A4 was found in 28% of the tumours, whilst the remaining tumours and normal urothelium either failed to stain or showed weak staining. S100A4 staining was more frequently observed in invasive bladder tumours than in non-invasive tumours (p<0.05). In invasive tumours, S100A4 staining was usually strongest in invasive regions and single infiltrating cells. Statistically significant associations were found between S100A4 expression and metastasis (p=0.0003) and reduced survival (p<0.0001). It is concluded that S100A4 expression may play an important role in bladder cancer and may identify a subgroup of patients at increased risk of metastasis who should be considered for adjuvant systemic therapy.

Original publication




Journal article


J Pathol

Publication Date





292 - 299


Aged, Biomarkers, Tumor, Carcinoma in Situ, Carcinoma, Papillary, Chi-Square Distribution, Female, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Male, Multivariate Analysis, Neoplasm Recurrence, Local, Neoplasm Staging, Risk Factors, S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A4, S100 Proteins, Survival Rate, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms