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PURPOSE: To study the role of urinary matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in bladder cancer and their relationship to tumor progression. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: MMP-1 and TIMP-1 were measured by ELISA in urine samples from 131 patients with bladder tumors (7 cis, 74 Ta, 29 T1, and 21 T2-T4; 46 G(1), 41 G(2), and 37 G(3)), 5 patients with prostate cancer, 33 patients with benign lower urinary tract disorders, and 36 healthy volunteers. Complete clinical data were available for 100 patients with bladder cancer with a median follow-up time of 24 months (range: 4-39 months). RESULTS: MMP-1 was detected in urine samples from 21 of 131 (16%) patients with bladder cancer but was undetectable in samples from all other groups (P < 0.0001). Urinary MMP-1 was detected in a higher percentage of patients with T2-T4 tumors and G(3) tumors than patients with cis/Ta/T1 or G(1)-G(2) tumors (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0074, respectively). Patients with detectable concentrations of urinary MMP-1 had higher rates of disease progression (P = 0.04) and death from bladder cancer (P = 0.02) than patients with undetectable urinary MMP-1. All patient groups had higher urinary TIMP-1 concentrations than healthy volunteers (P = 0.02). Patients with muscle-invasive tumors had higher concentrations of urinary TIMP-1 than patients with cis/Ta/T1 tumors (P = 0.037), but there was no association between TIMP-1 and tumor grade. Urinary TIMP-1 levels strongly correlated with tumor size (P = 0.0002). Progression-free survival rates were lower for patients with urinary TIMP-1 concentrations above the median (1.8 ng/ml, P = 0.04), but urinary TIMP-1 levels were not related to disease-specific survival. Patients with T2-T4 tumors and G(3) tumors had significantly lower urinary MMP-1:TIMP-1 ratios than patients with Ta/T1 bladder tumors (P = 0.039) or G(1)-G(2) tumors (P = 0.0415). CONCLUSIONS: Where urinary MMP-1 is detectable, the patient is more likely to have a bladder tumor of advanced stage or grade and may be at increased risk of disease progression and death of bladder cancer. The relationship between urinary TIMP-1, muscle-invasion, and disease progression in bladder cancer is at variance with its role as an inhibitor of MMPs and warrants additional evaluation.

Type

Journal article

Journal

Clin Cancer Res

Publication Date

11/2001

Volume

7

Pages

3450 - 3456

Keywords

Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Carcinoma, Transitional Cell, Disease Progression, Disease-Free Survival, Female, Humans, Male, Matrix Metalloproteinase 1, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Recurrence, Local, Neoplasm Staging, Prognosis, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms