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We assessed association between prior cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, proinflammatory status and effectiveness of the anti-influenza vaccination. We examined 154 individuals during the epidemic season dividing them according to the age, response to the vaccine and the Senieur Protocol (SP). The anti-hemagglutinins (HI), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin (IL) 1beta, IL6, IL10, ACTH/cortisol axis, anti-CMV antibodies and CD28+CD57- lymphocytes were assessed. Non-responders of both ages we characterised by higher levels of anti-CMV IgG and higher percentages of CD57+CD28- lymphocytes (known to be associated with CMV carrier status) together with increased concentrations of TNFalpha and IL6 and decreased levels of cortisol. The anti-influenza vaccine induced increase in TNFalpha and IL10 in the all non-responders, while cortisol increased only in the young. Concluding, CMV carrier status eliciting elevated proinflammatory potential could contribute to unresponsiveness to the anti-influenza vaccine.


Journal article



Publication Date





3826 - 3836


Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Aging, Antibodies, Viral, CD28 Antigens, Carrier State, Cytokines, Cytomegalovirus Infections, Female, Flow Cytometry, Health Status, Hemagglutinins, Humans, Hydrocortisone, Inflammation, Influenza Vaccines, Interleukin-1, Interleukin-10, Interleukin-6, Lymphocytes, Male, Monocytes, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Vaccination