Novel approaches to preventing ischemia-reperfusion injury during liver transplantation.
Akhtar MZ., Henderson T., Sutherland A., Vogel T., Friend PJ.
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) results in profound allograft damage during liver transplantation. The process of IRI results in adenosine triphosphatase (ATP) depletion, the production of reactive oxygen species, and progressive tissue destruction. This injury process is accelerated on reperfusion in the recipient. Over the last decade an increasing body of literature has identified a complex interplay of molecular and cellular pathways responsible for causing IRI. This article summarizes recent developments, drawing on preclinical and clinical studies, focusing on how the detrimental effects of IRI can be prevented in liver transplantation. We present a balanced overview on how machine preservation technologies, the coagulation system, antioxidants, cytoprotective agents, cytokines, preservation solutions, and the innate and adaptive immune system can be targeted to prevent IRI in liver transplantation.