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INTRODUCTION: The aim of this report is to describe our surgical technique of totally intracorporeal robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with neobladder formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 2003 and March 2013, a total of 147 patients (118 male, 29 female) underwent totally intracorporeal RARC for urinary bladder cancer. We also performed a systematic search of Medline, Embase and PubMed databases using the terms RARC, robotic cystectomy, robot-assisted, totally intracorporeal RARC, intracorporeal neobladder, intracorporeal urinary diversion, oncological outcomes, functional outcomes, and complication rates. RESULTS: The mean age of our patients was 64 years (range 37-87). On surgical pathology 47% had pT1 or less disease, 27% had pT2, 16% had pT3 and 10% had pT4. The mean number of lymph nodes removed was 21 (range 0-60). 24% of patients had lymph node positive dAQ1isease. Positive surgical margins occurred in 6 cases (4%). Mean follow-up was 31 months (range 4-115 months). Two patients (1.4%) died within 90 days of their operation. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, overall survival and cancer specific survival at 60 months was 68% and 69.6%, respectively. 80 patients (54%) received a continent diversion with totally intracorporeal neobladder formation. In the neobladder subgroup median total operating time was 420 minutes (range 265-760). Daytime continence and satisfactory sexual function or potency at 12 months ranged between 70-90% in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience with totally intracorporeal RARC demonstrates acceptable oncological and functional outcomes that suggest this is a viable alternative to open radical cystectomy.

Original publication




Journal article


Indian J Urol

Publication Date





307 - 313


Neobladder, oncological outcomes, radical cystectomy, robot assisted radical cystectomy, robotic cystectomy, surgical technique, totally intracorporeal