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BACKGROUND: A statistical model based on four kallikrein markers (total prostate-specific antigen [tPSA], free PSA [fPSA], intact PSA, and human kallikrein-related peptidase 2) in blood can predict risk of Gleason score ≥7 (high-grade) cancer at prostate biopsy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of this model in predicting high-grade cancer at biopsy in a community-based setting in which referral criteria included percentage of fPSA to tPSA (%fPSA). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We evaluated the model, with or without adding blood levels of microseminoprotein-β (MSMB) in a cohort of 749 men referred for prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA (≥3 ng/ml), low %fPSA (<20%), or suspicious digital rectal examination at Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The kallikrein markers, with or without MSMB levels, measured in cryopreserved anticoagulated blood were combined with age in a published statistical model (Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment [ProtecT]) to predict high-grade cancer at biopsy. Predictive accuracy was compared with a base model. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The %fPSA was low (median: 17; interquartile range: 13-22) in this cohort because this marker was used as a referral criterion. The ProtecT model improved discrimination over age and PSA for high-grade cancer (0.777 vs 0.720; p=0.002). At one illustrative cut point, use of the panel would reduce the number of biopsies by 236 per 1000 and detect 195 of 208 (94%) but delay diagnosis of 13 of 208 high-grade cancers. MSMB levels in blood did not improve the accuracy of the panel (p=0.2). CONCLUSIONS: The kallikrein model is predictive of high-grade cancer if criteria for biopsy referral also include %fPSA, and it can reduce unnecessary biopsies without missing an undue number of tumors. PATIENT SUMMARY: We evaluated a published model to predict biopsy outcome in men biopsied due to low percentage of free to total prostate-specific antigen. The model helps reduce unnecessary biopsies without missing an undue number of high-grade cancers.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur Urol

Publication Date





505 - 511


Biopsy, Four-kallikrein panel, Prostate cancer, Prostate-specific antigen, Aged, Area Under Curve, Biopsy, Digital Rectal Examination, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Humans, Kallikreins, Logistic Models, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Grading, Predictive Value of Tests, Prostate-Specific Antigen, Prostatic Neoplasms, Prostatic Secretory Proteins, ROC Curve, Reproducibility of Results, Sweden, Unnecessary Procedures