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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an important cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). However, many other causes, including smooth muscle dysfunction and neurological factors may contribute to these symptoms, and accurate diagnosis is imperative before invasive treatments are chosen. Careful recording of symptoms, giving emphasis on how they interfere with the patient's quality of life, as well as the use of properly selected tests, constitutes the mainstay of making a correct diagnosis. Men with mild or moderate symptoms not experiencing complications are ideal candidates for medical treatment. For the rest with persistent symptoms or complications such as infection, bleeding, chronic retention or renal impairment further investigation and more invasive forms of treatment need to be considered. We review the patho-physiology of the disease, and current approaches and management of this common problem.


Journal article


Minerva Urol Nefrol

Publication Date





109 - 122


Acute Disease, Chronic Disease, Diagnosis, Differential, Humans, Male, Prostate-Specific Antigen, Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Neoplasms, Quality of Life, Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction, Urinary Retention