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Epidemiological studies have identified certain risk factors for uro-genital cancers. Defining the mechanisms by which these factors cause cancer remains ongoing. Carcinogenesis is usually a complex, multistep process. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms both play a role in carcinogenesis. An improved understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis will translate into advancements in cancer prevention, detection and therapy. This chapter summarizes current opinion on mechanisms of carcinogenesis in general with specific comments on prostate, testis and penile cancer. © 2006 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Original publication





Book title

Andrology for the Clinician

Publication Date



362 - 370