Urinary diversion and bladder reconstruction/replacement using intestinal segments for intractable incontinence or following cystectomy.
Yong SM., Dublin N., Pickard R., Cody DJ., Neal DE., N'Dow J.
BACKGROUND: Surgery performed to improve or replace the function of the diseased urinary bladder has been carried out for over a century. Main reasons for improving or replacing the function of the urinary bladder are bladder cancer, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, detrusor overactivity and chronic inflammatory diseases of the bladder (such as interstitial cystitis, tuberculosis and schistosomiasis). There is still much uncertainty about the best surgical approach. Options available at the present time include: (1) conduit diversion (the creation of various intestinal conduits to the skin) or continent diversion (which includes either a rectal reservoir or continent cutaneous diversion), (2) bladder reconstruction and (3) replacement of the bladder with various intestinal segments. OBJECTIVES: To determine the best way of improving or replacing the function of the lower urinary tract using intestinal segments when the bladder has to be removed or when it has been rendered useless or dangerous by disease. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group's specialised register (3 May 2001), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2, 2001), MEDLINE (1966 to May 2001), PREMEDLINE (4 June 2001), Dissertation Abstracts (18.6.2001) and the reference lists of relevant articles. Date of most recent search: June 2001. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of surgery involving transposition of an intestinal segment into the urinary tract. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Trials were evaluated for appropriateness for inclusion and for methodological quality by the reviewers. Three reviewers were involved in the data extraction. The data collected was then analysed for statistical significance. MAIN RESULTS: Two trials met the inclusion criteria with a total of 164 participants. These trials addressed only four of the 14 comparisons pre-specified in the protocol. There were no statistically significant differences found in the incidence of upper urinary tract infection, ureterointestinal stenosis and renal deterioration in the comparison of continent diversion with conduit diversion. There was no evidence of a difference in incidence of upper urinary tract infection and uretero-intestinal stenosis when conduit diversions were fashioned from either ileum or colon. No statistically significant difference was found in the incidence of renal scarring between anti-refluxing versus freely refluxing uretero-intestinal anastomotic techniques in conduit diversions. The confidence intervals were all wide, however, and did not rule out important differences. There was some limited evidence that use of the more complex nipple valve at the ureteroileal anastomosis was more likely to lead to upper tract deterioration than implantation into a non-detubularised, isoperistaltic ileal afferent limb. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: The evidence from the included trials was very limited. Only two studies met the inclusion criteria; these were small, of moderate or poor methodological quality, and reported few of the pre-selected outcome measures. This review did not find any evidence that bladder replacement (orthotopic or continent diversion) was better than conduit diversion following cystectomy for cancer. There was no evidence to suggest that bladder reconstruction was better than conduit diversion for benign disease. The small amount of usable evidence for this review suggests that collaborative multicentre studies should be organised, using random allocation where possible.