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Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in England and Wales. The most common presenting symptom is macroscopic haematuria. The management options for superficial and invasive bladder cancer depend on the stage at presentation. Most superficial bladder cancers are managed by transurethral resection and cytoscopic follow-up. The prognosis for patients with invasive bladder cancer is less good. The role of chemical, radiotherapeutic and surgical intervention are discussed.


Journal article


Postgrad Med J

Publication Date





719 - 724


Antineoplastic Agents, Humans, Neoplasm Invasiveness, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms, Urinary Diversion