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Given the well-documented impact of stress on employees, it is important to understand moderating factors, especially in behavioral health treatment settings, where constant change occurs. Staff members at four mental health (n=663) and four substance abuse (n=256) treatment agencies completed questionnaires inquiring about perceptions of direct and indirect agency changes, stress experienced due to changes, and control and input into the changes. Results revealed that as direct and indirect change increased, stress increased; as level of control and input into changes increased, stress decreased. Control and input served as a moderating variable between stress and direct change, but not for indirect change.

Original publication




Journal article


Adm Policy Ment Health

Publication Date





499 - 503


Adult, Aged, Female, Health Personnel, Humans, Internal-External Control, Male, Mental Health Services, Middle Aged, Organizational Innovation, Stress, Psychological, Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, Surveys and Questionnaires, United States