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Androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are expressed in the prostate and are involved in prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to develop reliable protocols for reproducible quantification of AR and PSA in benign and malignant prostate tissue using time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) imaging techniques. AR and PSA were detected with TRF in tissue microarrays from 91 PCa patients. p63/ alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) staining on consecutive sections was used to categorize tissue areas as benign or cancerous. Automated image analysis was used to quantify staining intensity. AR intensity was significantly higher in AMACR+ and lower in AMACR- cancer areas as compared with benign epithelium. The PSA intensity was significantly lower in cancer areas, particularly in AMACR- glands. The AR/PSA ratio varied significantly in the AMACR+ tumor cells as compared with benign glands. There was a trend of more rapid disease progression in patients with higher AR/PSA ratios in the AMACR- areas. This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing reproducible protocols for TRF imaging and automated image analysis to study the expression of AR and PSA in benign and malignant prostate. It also highlighted the differences in AR and PSA protein expression within AMACR- and AMACR+ cancer regions.

Original publication

DOI

10.1369/0022155416640466

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Histochem Cytochem

Publication Date

05/2016

Volume

64

Pages

311 - 322

Keywords

androgen receptor, biomarkers, digital image analysis, prostate cancer, prostate-specific antigen, time-resolved fluorescence imaging, Aged, Feasibility Studies, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Grading, Prostate, Prostate-Specific Antigen, Prostatic Neoplasms, Receptors, Androgen, Tissue Array Analysis