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PURPOSE: To investigate whether cavitation enhances the degree of coagulation during pulsed high-intensity focussed ultrasound (HIFU) in an isolated liver perfusion system. METHODS: Isolated liver was treated by pulsed HIFU or continuous-wave HIFU with different portal vein flow rates. The cavitation emission during exposure was recorded, and real-time ultrasound images were used to observe changes in the grey scale. The coagulation size was measured and calculated. RESULTS: HIFU treatment led to complete coagulation necrosis and total cell destruction in the target regions. Compared to exposure at a duty cycle (DC) of 100%, the mean volumes of lesions induced by 6 s exposure at DCs of 50% and 10% were significantly larger (P  .05). For continuous-wave HIFU exposure, there was a significant decrease in the necrosis volume and cavitation activity for exposure times of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 s with increasing portal perfusion rates. CONCLUSION: Perfusion flow rates negatively influence cavitation activity and coagulation volume. Ablation is significantly enhanced during pulsed HIFU exposure compared with continuous-wave HIFU.

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Hyperthermia

Publication Date





343 - 353


Cavitation, focussed ultrasound, high-intensity focused, perfusion flow rate, porcine liver perfusion, thermal ablation