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OBJECTIVES: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a rapidly developing field of neurosurgery with potential therapeutic applications that are relevant to conditions traditionally viewed as beyond the limits of neurosurgery. Our objective, in this review, is to highlight some of the emerging applications of DBS within three distinct but overlapping spheres, namely trauma, neuropsychiatry, and autonomic physiology. REVIEW METHODS: An extensive literature review was carried out in MEDLINE, to identify relevant studies and review articles describing applications of DBS in the areas of trauma, neuropsychiatry and autonomic neuroscience. RESULTS: A wide range of applications of DBS in these spheres was identified, some having only been tested in one or two cases, others much better studied. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified various avenues for DBS to be applied for patient benefit in cases relevant to trauma, neuropsychiatry and autonomic neuroscience. Further developments in DBS technology and clinical trial design will enable these novel applications to be effectively and rigorously assessed and utilized most effectively.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





126 - 134


Bladder control, brain injury, deep brain stimulation, depression, spinal cord injury