Giele H., Barton R.
© Springer-Verlag London 2015. All rights reserved. Vascular disorders of the upper extremity encompass a broad range of pathology with diverse clinical presentations and management options. The consequences of vascular insufficiency may be critical to the point of producing cell death or subcritical events that damage tissue but fall short of generating necrosis. They occur as a result of a structural abnormality (laceration, thrombosis, embolism) or as a consequence of inappropriate physiological control mechanisms or both. Ultimately any symptoms that are a consequence of vascular disorders result from a failure to provide adequate nutritional blood flow to the extremity.