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Extravasation injuries are common emergencies in clinical practice. If they are not recognized and treated promptly, they can lead to deleterious functional and cosmetic outcomes. There is a vast range of agents involved in these injuries and marked paucity of evidence to support their specific management. Following an extensive literature review, we outline management principles for clinicians involved in the care of patients with extravasation injuries. Key parameters in deciding appropriate management plans include the volume/toxicity of the agent, the necrosis interval of the injury, patient-related factors, as well as the facilities and expertise available in the setting of individual cases of extravasation.

Original publication




Journal article


J Hand Surg Eur Vol

Publication Date





808 - 818


Extravasation, exfoliant, irritant, vesicant, Algorithms, Antidotes, Catheterization, Central Venous, Catheterization, Peripheral, Comorbidity, Decision Making, Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials, Hand, Hand Injuries, Humans, Hyaluronoglucosaminidase, Injections, Subcutaneous, Injury Severity Score, Lipectomy, Necrosis, Patient Preference, Risk Factors, Saline Solution, Hypertonic, Therapeutic Irrigation