The rise and potential fall of pancreas transplantation.
Dholakia S., Royston E., Quiroga I., Sinha S., Reddy S., Gilbert J., Friend PJ.
Background: The aim of this review is to bring pancreatic transplantation out of the specialist realm, informing practitioners about this important procedure, so that they feel better equipped to refer suitable patients for transplantation and manage, counsel and support when encountering them within their own speciality. Sources of data: Narrative review conducted in May 2017. OVID interface searching EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, using Timeframe: Inception to June 1, 2017. Articles were assessed for clinical relevance and most up to date content with articles written in english as the only inclusion criteria. Other sources, used included conference proceedings/presentations, unpublished data from our institution (Oxford Transplant Centre). Areas of agreement: Pancreas transplantation has evolved from an experimental procedure to the gold standard of care for patients with type 1 diabetes and uraemia. Currently, it remains the most effective method of establishing and maintaining euglycemia over the longer term, halting and potentially reversing many of the secondary complications associated with diabetes. Significant improvements to quality of life and better life expectancy make it in the longer term, a lifesaving procedure compared to waiting candidates. Areas of controversy: The future of solid organ pancreas transplantation remains uncertain, with extensive comorbidity and advances in alternative therapies makes the long-term growth of the procedure questionable. Growing points and areas timely for developing research: Therapies to alleviate problems associated with ischaemia reperfusion injury, graft pancreatitis and more effective monitoring methods for detecting and treating organ rejection are the key areas of growth.