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The "Achilles heel" of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is graft patency. While long-term patency is determined by the type of conduit and the progression of graft and native vessel disease, short-term patency is affected by intra-operative technical issues. Transit-time flow measurements and epicardial ultrasound have been shown to accurately assess intra-operative graft patency. This review will examine the evidence to support the premise that intra-operative graft assessment is essential in determining graft patency and should be the standard of care when performing CABG surgery.

Original publication




Journal article


J Card Surg

Publication Date





219 - 228


coronary artery bypass graft surgery, epicardial ultrasound, transit-time flow measurement, Blood Flow Velocity, Coronary Artery Bypass, Female, Graft Survival, Humans, Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis, Intraoperative Care, Intraoperative Period, Mammary Arteries, Middle Aged, Pericardium, Treatment Outcome, Ultrasonography, Vascular Patency