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γδ T cells are a subpopulation of lymphocytes expressing heterodimeric T-cell receptors composed of γ and δ chains. They are morphologically and functionally heterogeneous, innate yet also adaptive in behaviour, and exhibit diverse activities spanning immunosurveillance, immunomodulation, and direct cytotoxicity. The specific responses of γδ T cells to allografts are yet to be fully elucidated with evidence of both detrimental and tolerogenic roles in different settings. Here we present an overview of γδ T cell literature, consider ways in which their functional heterogeneity contributes to the outcomes after transplantation, and reflect upon methods to harness their beneficial properties.

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