Outcomes After Coronary Stenting or Bypass Surgery for Men and Women With Unprotected Left Main Disease: The EXCEL Trial.
Serruys PW., Cavalcante R., Collet C., Kappetein AP., Sabik JF., Banning AP., Taggart DP., Sabaté M., Pomar J., Boonstra PW., Lembo NJ., Onuma Y., Simonton CA., Morice M-C., McAndrew T., Dressler O., Stone GW.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) according to sex in a large randomized trial of patients with unprotected left main disease. BACKGROUND: In the SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) trial, sex had a significant interaction effect with revascularization strategy, and women had an overall higher mortality when treated with PCI than CABG. METHODS: The EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trial was a multinational randomized trial that compared PCI with everolimus-eluting stents and CABG in patients with unprotected left main disease. The primary endpoint was the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 3 years. RESULTS: Of 1,905 patients randomized, 1,464 (76.9%) were men and 441 (23.1%) were women. Compared with men, women were older; had higher prevalence rates of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes; and were less commonly smokers but had lower coronary anatomic burden and complexity (mean SYNTAX score 24.2 vs. 27.2, p < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, sex was not independently associated with either the primary endpoint (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82 to 1.48; p = 0.53) or all-cause death (HR: 1.39; 95% CI: 0.92 to 2.10; p = 0.12) at 3 years. At 30 days, all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke had occurred in 8.9% of woman treated with PCI, 6.2% of women treated with CABG, 3.6% of men treated with PCI, and 8.4% of men treated with CABG (p for interaction = 0.003). The 3-year rate of the composite primary endpoint was 19.7% in women treated with PCI, 14.6% in women treated with CABG, 13.8% in men treated with PCI, and 14.7% in men treated with CABG (p for interaction = 0.06). These differences were driven by higher periprocedural rates of myocardial infarction in women after PCI and in men after CABG. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with unprotected left main disease in the EXCEL trial, sex was not an independent predictor of adverse outcomes after revascularization. However, women undergoing PCI had a trend toward worse outcomes, a finding related to associated comorbidities and increased periprocedural complications. Further studies are required to determine the optimal revascularization modality in women with complex coronary artery disease.