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Resistance to the intestinal parasitic helminth Trichuris muris requires T-helper 2 (TH2) cellular and associated IgG1 responses, with expulsion typically taking up to 4 weeks in mice. Here, we show that the time-of-day of the initial infection affects efficiency of worm expulsion, with strong TH2 bias and early expulsion in morning-infected mice. Conversely, mice infected at the start of the night show delayed resistance to infection, and this is associated with feeding-driven metabolic cues, such that feeding restriction to the day-time in normally nocturnal-feeding mice disrupts parasitic expulsion kinetics. We deleted the circadian regulator BMAL1 in antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo and found a loss of time-of-day dependency of helminth expulsion. RNAseq analyses revealed that IL-12 responses to worm antigen by circadian-synchronised DCs were dependent on BMAL1. Therefore, we find that circadian machinery in DCs contributes to the TH1/TH2 balance, and that environmental, or genetic perturbation of the DC clock results in altered parasite expulsion kinetics.

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