Identifying the deficiencies of current diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis 2 using databases of 2777 individuals with molecular testing.
Evans DG., King AT., Bowers NL., Tobi S., Wallace AJ., Perry M., Anup R., Lloyd SKL., Rutherford SA., Hammerbeck-Ward C., Pathmanaban ON., Stapleton E., Freeman SR., Kellett M., Halliday D., Parry A., Gair JJ., Axon P., Laitt R., Thomas O., Afridi S., Ferner RE., Harkness EF., Smith MJ., English Specialist NF2 Research Group None.
PURPOSE: We have evaluated deficiencies in existing diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2). METHODS: Two large databases of individuals fulfilling NF2 criteria (n = 1361) and those tested for NF2 variants with criteria short of diagnosis (n = 1416) were interrogated. We assessed the proportions meeting each diagnostic criterion with constitutional or mosaic NF2 variants and the positive predictive value (PPV) with regard to definite diagnosis. RESULTS: There was no evidence for usefulness of old criteria "glioma" or "neurofibroma." "Ependymoma" had 100% PPV and high levels of confirmed NF2 diagnosis (67.7%). Those with bilateral vestibular schwannoma (VS) alone aged ≥60 years had the lowest confirmation rate (6.6%) and reduced PPV (80%). Siblings as a first-degree relative, without an affected parent, had 0% PPV. All three individuals with unilateral VS and an affected sibling were proven not to have NF2. The biggest overlap was with LZTR1-associated schwannomatosis. In this category, seven individuals with unilateral VS plus ≥2 nondermal schwannomas reduced PPV to 67%. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms important deficiencies in NF2 diagnostic criteria. The term "glioma" should be dropped and replaced by "ependymoma." Similarly "neurofibroma" should be removed. Dropping "sibling" from first-degree relatives should be considered and testing of LZTR1 should be recommended for unilateral VS.