Harnessing Androgen Receptor Pathway Activation for Targeted Alpha Particle Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer.
Thorek DLJ., Ku AT., Mitsiades N., Veach D., Watson PA., Metha D., Strand S-E., Sharma SK., Lewis JS., Abou DS., Lilja HG., Larson SM., McDevitt MR., Ulmert D.
PURPOSE: The impact of androgen receptor (AR) activity in breast cancer biology is unclear. We characterized and tested a novel therapy to an AR-governed target in breast cancer.Experimental Design: We evaluated the expression of prototypical AR gene products human kallikrein 2 (hK2) and PSA in breast cancer models. We screened 13 well-characterized breast cancer cell lines for hK2 and PSA production upon in vitro hormone stimulation by testosterone [dihydrotestosterone (DHT)]. AR-positive lines were further evaluated by exposure to estrogen (17β-Estradiol) and the synthetic progestin D-Norgestrel. We then evaluated an anti-hK2-targeted radiotherapy platform (hu11B6), labeled with alpha (α)-particle emitting Actinium-225, to specifically treat AR-expressing breast cancer xenografts under hormone stimulation. RESULTS: D-Norgestrel and DHT activated the AR pathway, while 17β-Estradiol did not. Competitive binding for AR protein showed similar affinity between DHT and D-Norgestrel, indicating direct AR-ligand interaction. In vivo production of hK2 was sufficient to achieve site-specific delivery of therapeutic radionuclide to tumor tissue at >20-fold over background muscle uptake; effecting long-term local tumor control. CONCLUSIONS: [225Ac]hu11B6 targeted radiotherapy was potentiated by DHT and by D-Norgestrel in murine xenograft models of breast cancer. AR activity in breast cancer correlates with kallikrein-related peptidase-2 and can be activated by D-Norgestrel, a common contraceptive, and AR induction can be harnessed for hK2-targeted breast cancer α-emitter radiotherapy.