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BACKGROUND: The glial protein S100beta has been used to estimate cerebral damage in a number of clinical settings. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the correlation between cerebral microemboli and S100beta levels during cardiac operations. METHODS: Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure emboli in the right middle cerebral artery. Emboli counts (n = 111) were divided into five time periods: (1) incision to aortic cannulation; (2) aortic cannulation to cross-clamp onset; (3) cross-clamp onset to cross-clamp release; (4) cross-clamp release to decannulation; and (5) decannulation to chest closure. The level of S100beta (n = 156) was measured at baseline, at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass, then 150 and 270 minutes after cross-clamp release. RESULTS: The level of S100beta correlated with age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross-clamp time, and number of emboli at time period 2. Although cardiopulmonary bypass time was univariately associated with S100beta level, it became nonsignificant in a multivariable model that included age and cross-clamp time. CONCLUSIONS: The correlation of S100beta level with emboli measured during cannulation (time period 2) supports the hypothesis that cannulation is a high-risk time period for cerebral injury.

Original publication




Journal article


Ann Thorac Surg

Publication Date





1645 - 1649


Age Factors, Analysis of Variance, Aorta, Biomarkers, Calcium-Binding Proteins, Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Cerebral Arteries, Constriction, Coronary Artery Bypass, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis, Male, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, Nerve Growth Factors, Risk Factors, S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit, S100 Proteins, Time Factors, Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial