Cell adhesion molecules in bladder cancer: soluble serum E-cadherin correlates with predictors of recurrence.
Griffiths TR., Brotherick I., Bishop RI., White MD., McKenna DM., Horne CH., Shenton BK., Neal DE., Mellon JK.
Sera from 40 patients with newly diagnosed bladder cancer (28 superficial tumours (pTa and pT1) and 12 muscle-invasive tumours) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the concentrations of soluble E-cadherin (sE-cadherin), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Corresponding frozen sections of primary tumour were analysed for E-cadherin expression using the monoclonal antibody, HECD-1 and standard immunohistochemistry. Patients with bladder cancer had significantly higher concentrations of sE-cadherin compared with a control group (P = 0.017). No difference was found between the two groups with regard to sE-selection (P = 0.403), sVCAM-1 (P = 0.942) and sICAM-1 (P = 0.092). High levels of sE-cadherin were related to poor histological grade (P = 0.009), number of superficial tumours at presentation (P = 0.008) and a positive 3 month check cytoscopy in superficial disease (P = 0.036). Abnormal E-cadherin expression was associated with increasing tumour stage (P = 0.009) and grade (P = 0.03). There was no correlation between high levels of soluble E-cadherin in sera and abnormal E-cadherin expression by the tumour (P = 0.077). Elevated levels of sE-cadherin are found in sera of patients with bladder cancer and correlate with known prognostic factors.